Kouzlo závodního plavání  ze břehu nelze pochopit, z vody na břeh nelze vysvětlit.

Září 2010

genadi touretski

16. září 2010 v 10:39 Videa
Jedinečná příležitest vidět a slyšet jednoho z nejlepších trenérů plavání.


Motýlek - plavecké cviky

9. září 2010 v 13:46 | Komentář Věra Vaníčková |  Videa
MOTÝL


Cvičení 1: vlnění

Komentář ke cvičení 1:
- Jedná se o vlnění celého těla, nikoliv pouze o kopání nohama!!!
- Hlava se vynořuje nad hladinu první, poté se vynořuje zadek.

Cvičení 2: motýl s jednou rukou

Komentář ke cvičení 2:
- Smyslem cvičení je sladění vlnění těla a záběru rukou.
- Ruka se vynořuje vzápětí po prvním kopu. Jakmile je přenesena vzduchem, zůstává natažena a následuje druhý kop s vystrčením zadku.
- Dýchání stranou usnadňuje soustředěnost na správné provedení cviku.

Obraz 3: vše v jednom klipu

Komentář k obrazu 3 (zvláště úsek 40s - 55s)
- Po přenesení rukou vzduchem se dlaně nezanořují (jako u prsou), nýbrž zůstávají u hladiny, hlava je NÍŽE než ruce, zadek VÝŠE než hlava. Toto je KRITICKÝ MOMENT pro většinu plavců.

Obraz 4: Phelps
Komentář k obrazu 4:
- Hlava vede ruce = nejprve se vynoří hlava, poté ruce, nejprve se zanoří hlava, poté ruce
- Po přenesení rukou vzduchem opět - hlava je NÍŽE než ruce, zadek VÝŠE než hlava.
- Dýchání na každý záběr umožňuje pravidelné, rytmické pohyby bez přílišného zanořování boků po záběrech bez dýchání. Výjimkou je výjezd po obrátce, kde je první záběr bez nádechu (ad komentář u jiných klipů).
- Tento způsob dýchání lze doporučit až poté, kdy plavec s dokonalou technikou opravdu směřuje veškerou sílu záběru směrem vpřed, nikoliv nahoru a dolů!

Obraz 5: Motýl pod vodou
To je také moooc dobré! Doporučuji zařadit do tréninku. :)

znak - plavecké cviky

9. září 2010 v 13:40 | Věra Vaníčková |  Videa


ZNAK

Vše v jednom klipu:
Sledujeme:
- dokonalé ležení na vodě - boky u hladiny
- rotaci těla - lehké přetáčení z jednoho boku na druhý
- napnuté nohy - neskrčená kolena

Start: Jak na to?

Obrátka:
Při vlnění těla jsou ruce pevně ve vzpažení. Paže neprovádí žádné vlnivé pohyby.

Tréninkové tipy:




Velmi oblíbené cvičení aneb Umíme to všichni

Prsa - plavecké cviky

9. září 2010 v 13:37 Videa
PRSA
Výběr a komentář: Věra Vaníčková

Obraz 1: kopání nohama
Obě nohy vykopávají současně a ve stejné vodorovné rovině.
Chodidla jsou v aktivní části kopu vytočena ven.
Paty mohou protnout hladinu, ALE nesmí následovat kop dolů jako při delfínu!
Nůžkový pohyb - "křivý střih" - je ZAKÁZÁN!


Obraz 2: nohy drill, ruce podél těla

Obraz 3: ruce drill - široký záběr
a) bez pacek a s deskou
b) s packami a s deskou

Obraz 4: ruce detail
Ruce při natahování nejprve protnou hladinu, pak směřují mírně (!) do hloubky, poté zamíří zpět nahoru k hladině a s neskrčenými lokty rozhrnují vodu k dalšímu tempu.
Tento pohyb je základem vlnění těla jako u motýlku.

Obraz 5: závodní tempo
- Sleduj krátké splývání po kopu nohama před dalším záběrem.

Obraz 6: výjezd
1. Dlouhý zátah rukama až ke kyčlím.
2. Delfínový kop (zde jedině povolen).
3. Ruce vpřed + prsový kop.
4. Široký prsový záběr (hlava stále chvíli pod hladinou - jako ostatně i při každém dalším záběru :) )

Obraz 7. obrátka
- Dotyk oběma rukama současně !!! Může být nad hladinou i pod ní, ale současně.

Swim like a fish. Touretski - Popov. Jak důležitá je dokonalá technika v plavání.

9. září 2010 v 13:33



Swimming Technique: Swim Like a Fish

Quelle / Source: New Scientist, 1. August 1998, No2145

© übersetzung Felix K. Gmünder

Forget raw power

If you want to swim really fast, stop thrashing about, relax and feel the water. Olympic coach Gennadi Touretski tells Daniel Drollette how to torpedo the opposition.

There's humiliation and then there's real humiliation

While swimming in the local outdoor pool in Canberra, a guy swept past me like a torpedo to my tugboat. I felt bad. I actually rocked in the water as he swam by. But the feeling didn't last long once I realised that the torpedo was Alexander Popov, two-time Olympic gold medal winner and holder of the world record for the 100 metres freestyle. In the next lane gleamed the menacing shaven head of Popov's training partner, Michael Klim, who has swum the fastest time ever in the 100 metres butterfly. I had unwittingly crawled into part of the pool where these elite athletes occasionally train for a change of scene from the indoor pool at the nearby Australian Institute of Sport.

Popov seemed to slide effortlessly through the water, elbow bent overhead in classic freestyle position, long arms slicing forward with elegant ease. In contrast, Klim crashed ahead with his arms locked straight as they emerged from the water in his trademark "windmill" version of the freestyle. Each man's style is unique, but both are world-beaters. And both are the products of the unorthodox ideas of the same coach, Gennadi Touretski.

Touretski, a colourful and sometimes controversial character, studies the motion of fish and writes physics equations on the whiteboard of his poolside office to explain the principles of hydrodynamics. His brand of science-based training has done much to promote the idea that it is not raw power that makes champion swimmers, but efficiency. Klim and Popov are taught to behave like fish, to "feel" the water and glide through it.

Now a naturalised Australian, Touretski is a product of the old Soviet system, in which as many as eight scientists would monitor the performance of the national team. He is a former swimming champion with a degree in engineering and training in biomechanics, biochemistry, fluid mechanics and sports physiology. He is known for using unusual props to get his ideas across: he once brought inflated condoms to the pool to show his fellow coaches the importance of maintaining a rigid torso while kicking forward. When deflated, the condoms flopped in the water; inflated, they skimmed across the surface with just a light push.

Touretski's swimmers swear by him. It was Touretski's idea, for example, for Klim to switch to the windmill style. "I've made straight personal bests ever since he made me make this change," Klim told me later. Popov is just as enthusiastic: "He's the reason I left Russia." Popov and Klim have the status of pop stars in Australia, while magazines and newspapers hail Touretski as the man who transformed top-echelon swimming in Australia. But amid all the hoopla, the question remains: how do Touretski and his swimmers do it?

The answers, says Touretski as he paces the poolside, lie partly in genetics and partly in technique. Elite swimmers tend to be born with certain advantages, such as superefficient metabolisms. Some long-distance swimmers, for example, have cardiovascular systems capable of delivering twice as much oxygen to starved muscle cells as the average fit young person, giving them an advantage before even entering the pool.


  Olympic swimmers also tend to be tall and long-limbed. When seen on land, both of Touretski's swimmers are as long and lanky as basketball players. Klim is 1.91 a metres tall (6 feet 3 inches), while Popov, at 1.97 metres (6 feet 6 inches), can touch the bottom of the deep end of the Canberra pool and still keep his head above water. The pair are designed for swimming. Or, as Touretski told them: "You have something given to you by God. You must develop it." Fair enough. But how?

There are two ways to swim faster, says Touretski: increase the force that swimmers use to propel themselves through the water or decrease water resistance. Both approaches come down to technique, but he thinks the second is by far the best.

To propel yourself through the water faster you might, for example, increase your stroke rate. But there's a problem here, Touretski says. You'd soon run out of steam. He cites a passage from his favourite book, Fish Swimming by zoologist John Videler of the University of Groningen in the Netherlands, which states that energy consumption in water increases as the cube of the stroking rate. In other words, doubling the speed at which you move your arms through the water takes eight times as much energy.

What's more, increasing stroke rate inevitably means taking shorter strokes, which is at odds with how most animals behave. When they want to move faster, they increase the distance covered with each movement. Touretski points to video clips for support: horses, Touretski points out, speed up by increasing the distance they cover with every stride, not by increasing the number of strides per second. Kangaroos do the same hopping on their two feet. Touretski believes swimmers should do what animals do, stretching as far forward as possible to get the longest pull with each stroke. Popov's first gold medal in the 1992 Olympics in Barcelona provided evidence to support this approach. When he beat the American swimmer Matt Biondi, Popov covered 50 metres with just 33 strokes to Biondi's 36.

So if increasing stroke rate isn't the answer, what about pulling harder and bulldozing through the water? Until the 1980s, swimmers and their coaches focused on power. They took inspiration from mechanical models such as propellers and paddle wheels. The typical swimmer had shoulders like a Bulgarian weightlifter, and the emphasis was on lots of long-distance training sessions, according to renowned coach Cecil Colwin, author of Swimming into the 21st Century. The science of biomechanics "has been incorrectly focused on emulating the actions of mechanical propellers instead of . . . mechanisms more akin to natural flight and fish propulsion", he wrote.

Touretski agrees with Colwin, for reasons based on physics. Fluid dynamics tells us that drag depends upon form and friction. Dolphins swim as fast as they do, for example, because they have a streamlined shape and because their skin is designed to reduce friction by stopping the formation of energysapping eddies around their bodies.

Making waves

Humans have neither of these advantages. But the real killer for competitive swimmers is a third type of resistance that arises at the interface between air and water- wave drag. Moving along the surface of the water inevitably creates waves. Physically speaking, swimmers force a mass of water in front of them to rise up against gravity. This not only robs swimmers of energy, but it has a disproportionately greater effect the faster they go.

The problem is that wave drag increases as the cube of any increase in swimming speed. And it gets worse if a swimmer makes jerky or uneven movements, either bouncing in the water or moving from to side, because this wastes still more energy making waves. Because of this, Touretski believes that trying to increase speed by propelling yourself harder through the water is pointless beyond a certain point. "More propulsive force will only produce higher waves, not higher velocities," he says.

If you can't beat water into submission, Touretski argues that it's better to learn how to avoid its obstructive influence. For a start, reducing friction with the water is important. This is one reason why Klim shaves his head. Form-or shape-is also a factor. For swimmers this means streamlining themselves with tricks such as pushing the head and chest down into the water, and rolling from side to side with each stroke, to present a narrower profile. To avoid wave drag, Touretski urges swimmers to eliminate jerkiness in their stroke. (One of the other curious consequences of wave drag is that it penalises short swimmers more than it does their taller rivals.)

To achieve a reduced resistance technique, Touretski's swimmers are trained to improve their balance, locomotion and "feel" of the water. The emphasis during training is on quality of performance rather than mileage. His idea is that with constant repetition, precisely practised movements become second nature-like reflexes.

To work properly this training method demands meticulous attention to detail. "If you can't do it exactly right, don't do it at all," Touretski says. He'd rather have his swimmers do a few movements properly than do a lot of movements incorrectly. Touretski and his swimmers talk in terms of "muscle memory".

So much time is spent on proper technique that by Olympic standards, Klim, Popov and the rest of Touretski's squad have relatively leisurely workouts- though they still swim about 70 kilometres a week. To outsiders, his methods appear odd. American coach, Bill Irwin, once told a reporter: "Popov does long sets with meticulously precise strokes and a consistently beautiful flow. In three weeks, I never saw him do a single lap that looked hard."

Slowly does it

Part of what we saw is Touretski's "superslow swimming" method. Touretski demonstrates by walking across his office in exaggerated slow motion. By moving extremely slowly, he has to concentrate on the exact placement of each muscle. Balance becomes imperative. "People are more wobbly when moving very slowly and they have to constantly shift weight to get their balance right," he says. The same applies in the pool, and when swimmers can travel smoothly at a very slow speed, they can move more smoothly at high speed.

Superslow swimming also forces swimmers to concentrate on extending their arms as far as possible, to get maximum range on each stroke. And it improves a swimmer's ability to relax at higher speed. When you absolutely know that your hands and feet will be in the right place at the right time, there are fewer frantic actions and less wasted energy during a race. Relaxation is often overlooked, but the great American swimmer Johnny Weissmuller once said that "the greatest secret of freestyle swimming is relaxation at top speed". (Weissmuller is best remembered today for his Hollywood portrayals of Tarzan, but until Popov came along, he was the only swimmer to win gold medals for the 100 metres freestyle in two consecutive Olympics.) Touretski elaborates: "Not all muscles are switched on at the same time. There's a wave of muscles contracting or relaxing simultaneously." Learning to relax the muscles that are not in use saves energy and staves off fatigue.

Training at slow speed also helps the swimmer hone the all-important intuitive "feel" of the water to anticipate, control and manipulate its flow. Swimmers get quite mystical when describing this ability, like artists describing "a good eye" for painting. To a swimmer, "feel" lets you know when you've properly caught the water with your palm and pulled your body forward with minimal resistance.

If superslow swimming does not help to develop this sense, Touretski tries the opposite approach, using his towing machine. This pulls swimmers through the water at high speed, so they get a heightened sensation of what happens when they position their arms and legs properly. It's like holding your arm out of the window of a moving car-when your palm is held vertically you feel the wind resistance pushing it back. Rotate it 90 degrees and your hand knifes through the air.

Touretski's methods are intended to optimise what he calls the "three Rs": stroke range, relaxation and rhythm. Rhythm is important for reducing jerkiness in the water. When a freestyle swimmer's hand digs into the water his or her body speeds up, but when it is withdrawn the body slows down. Like a one-cylinder engine, this results in uneven propulsion. The larger the changes, the more energy is wasted.

To move at a constant speed, one arm should always dig into the water as the other comes out, so that the motion is more like that generated by a two-cylinder engine, in which one piston drives the engine while the other recovers. To get their arms moving in synchrony, Touretski has his swimmers practise a "kayak manoeuvre" in which they stand on the poolside with a double-bladed kayak paddle and take an imaginary trip. Popov demonstrates how, as he paddles, one arm is always doing the opposite of the other. Once again, Touretski's swimmers drill in this manner until the technique becomes second nature.

These unusual drills and training methods seem to pay off. Touretski's swimmers don't waste much energy in creating waves. Besides the evidence of all his success, a study by Sergei Kolmogorov, head scientist of the Russian team, has shown that Popov's smooth technique allows him to consume 30 per cent less energy than other swimmers moving at the same speed.

Touretski hopes to improve his swimmers' technique still further. "I think Michael [Klim] will look better over time. He's still learning, still growing. I'm fighting for beautiful technique," he says. "Beauty and perfection are quite close."

Daniel Drollette is a freelance science writer in Australia on a Fulbright fellowship.

Further reading:

High intensity or high volume training? Je lépe trénovat vysokou intenzitou nebo velikými objemy?

9. září 2010 v 13:30 Articles in English

Why high-intensity training is better
than high-volume training

It is probably fair to say that most swimmers and swim coaches see the number of hours spent in the pool as the main ingredient of swimming success and distances of 6 to 10 kilometres per day is common in elite swimming circles. Is this really the key to success, or is there an alternative approach that can produce even better results? This article aims to stir up the debate by suggesting the traditional high volume model of training will not optimise performance, especially for 100 metre and 200 metre swimmers.
It is written not from a swimming coach's perspective but in the light of research on swim training, scientific analysis of the demands of competitive swimming, and running training methods that have been shown to optimise performance. Swimmers should read on with open minds and may then choose to apply some of the principles to their own training programs.
Research into the effects of high-volume swim training on performance suggests there is no advantage to piling on the kilometres. The legendary US physiologist Dave Costill has undertaken a great deal of research on swim training over the last three decades. In one study, his team of scientists followed two groups of swimmers over a 25 week training period. Both groups began with once daily training, but one group moved to twice daily training in weeks 10 to 15, reverting to once daily for the rest of the study period. At no stage of the 25 week training period did this group show enhanced performance or increased aerobic capacity as a result of their extra training. It was a waste of time.
In another study, Costill tracked the performance of competitive swimmers over a four-year period, comparing a group averaging 10 kilometre per day with a group averaging 5 kilometre per day in relation to changes in competitive performance time over 100, 200, 500 and 1600 yards. Improvements in swim times were identical for both groups at around 0.8% per year for all events. Again, even though one group did twice as much training, both groups benefited to the same extent in the long term.
To quote Costill directly: 'Most competitive swimming events last less than two minutes. How can training for 3 to 4 hours per day at speeds that are markedly slower than competitive pace prepare the swimmer for the maximal efforts of competition?' Research from France supports Costill's conclusions. A team of scientists analysed the training and performance of competitive 100 metres and 200 metre swimmers over a 44 week period. Their findings were as follows:
  • Most swimmers completed two training sessions per day
  • Swimmers trained at five specific intensities. These were swim speeds equivalent to 2, 4, 6 and a high 10 mmol/L blood lactate concentration pace and, finally, maximal sprint swimming
  • Over the whole season, the swimmers who made the biggest improvements were those who performed more of their training at higher paces. The volume of training had no influence on swim performance.

Feeling comfortable is not the point

The only conclusion to be drawn from this research is that faster and not longer training is the key to swimming success. Nevertheless, the high-volume, low-intensity training model probably remains the most common practice among elite swimmers, with even sprint swimmers focusing on clocking up the kilometres rather than more race pace- specific training.
One of reasons for this high-volume bias is that swimmers and coaches believe that swim technique, efficiency through the water and the 'feel' of the stroke are optimised by spending many hours in the pool. I have heard swimmers say they do not feel as comfortable in the water and confident about their technique unless they complete high doses of training. As a non-swimmer I am happy to admit my ignorance and to concede that the technical aspect of swim training is very important. However, the idea that high-volume training equates to superior race technique has no logical basis. If you told a 100 metres runner that the best way to optimise his sprint technique at maximum speed would be to complete many miles a week at 10 kilometre pace, you would be laughed off the track! Track sprinters focus on workouts and technical drills carried out at high intensity and positively avoid low intensity/high volume training in the belief that it inhibits power development.
The same must be true of swimming to a large extent; if a swimmer wants to increase stroke efficiency and technique during a competition, surely the best way to do this is to train at target race pace. The more training time is spent at target race pace, the more comfortable it will feel in competition. Dave Costill says: '...large training volume prepares the athlete to tolerate a high volume of training but likely does little to benefit actual performance'. When swimmers talk of 'feeling comfortable' in the water, they may be referring to the sub-maximal speeds they perform in training, not the maximal efforts required in competition.
Not only does high-volume training offer no benefit for swim performance, it may have negative effects. Two known consequences of high-volume training are depletion of glycogen muscle stores and fatigue of the fast twitch muscle fibres, both of which will reduce the effectiveness of high-intensity race pace training sessions and severely compromise any competitive performance.

Research has also shown that periods of high-volume training reduce the force production in the fast twitch muscle fibres, which are essential for producing the fastest swim speeds. It has been shown that sprint swimmers have quite high proportions of fast twitch muscles - over 60% in the deltoid and quadriceps. High-volume training does nothing for these fibres: indeed, it will dampen their force production by reducing the shortening velocity of the muscle contraction. In this way, high volume training can change fast twitch fibres into the slow twitch variety.
This probably explains why 'tapering' is so effective at improving performance for swimmers, as the fast twitch fibres are able to recover during the period of low-volume training. It is known that maximal power increases after a tapering period, probably due to the fast twitch fibres reproducing their high-velocity contraction properties. The French researchers mentioned above analysed the effects of tapering on swim performance and found that swimmers who used the most severe tapers - reductions of about half normal training volume - produced the biggest improvements in performance.
This begs the following questions:
  • If such dramatic tapers in training are required to optimise performance, why are training volumes so high in the first place?
  • Would it not be better for swimmers to develop power in a positive fashion during the training period?
Examination of the demands of sprint swimming events will help to answer these questions.

The metabolic demands of swimming

The shorter the swim event the greater the demand on the anaerobic energy systems. This is particularly true of the 50 metres, 100 metres and 200 metres events, lasting from around 20 to 120 seconds. The longer events, from 800 metres upwards, demand a larger contribution from the aerobic energy system. Evidence for this comes from blood lactate concentrations following 100 metres and 200 metres competition swims, which are a very high 16 to 20 mmol/L, suggesting that a great deal of energy is derived from the anaerobic breakdown of glycogen, resulting in lactic acid as a by-product. The highly anaerobic nature of sprint swim events would support the argument for more high-intensity and less high volume training.
Some athletes and coaches go wrong by assuming it is best to do training that will reduce blood lactate concentrations. This philosophy is based on the idea that high lactate is bad and will have a negative impact on performance. This leads to training programs that focus on 'lactate threshold' training to improve the turnover of lactate and enhance the ability of the aerobic systems to produce more of the energy required for the event.
There are two problems with this model of training:
  1. You need to be careful about assuming high lactate levels are a bad thing. Remember that lactic acid is the by-product of anaerobic breakdown of glycogen. Lactic acid splits into the H+ ion and the lactate ion. It is the acidic H+ ion that is the bad guy, interfering with force production in the muscles and reducing the rate of glycolysis, thus slowing the athlete down. The lactate ion simply diffuses through the muscle and into the bloodstream, with no evidence to suggest it has any negative impact on muscle function or energy production. In fact, the lactate ion can be recycled in the energy production cycle and used positively to help produce energy. Therefore, a high level of lactate in the blood is not bad in itself: it is simply an indicator that a lot of anaerobic energy production is occurring. The training adaptation you are seeking is not a reduction in lactate production, but rather an increase in the buffering of the H+ ion. Training at high intensities and so generating high levels of lactic acid helps the body get used to the increase in H+ in the muscles and improve its ability to buffer the acid;
  2. Anaerobic glycolysis involves the fast breakdown of glycogen into energy-giving phosphates, while aerobic glycolysis involves a much slower breakdown. Without the anaerobic energy systems, maximal power and high speeds would be impossible, as the muscles would not get a fast enough supply of energy. If you want high power, you have to have high levels of anaerobic energy supply.
For sprint swimming, anaerobic capacity is the good guy and it needs to be developed. If an event places great demands on the anaerobic system, the athlete needs to become more anaerobic! This may seem odd to those of you with traditional beliefs about training, but it is true. By focusing on high volume aerobic training to reduce lactate levels you are in fact compromising your anaerobic fitness, which is the most important attribute for competitive success in sprint swimming. For sprint swimmers, lactate threshold training geared to keeping lactate levels low is, I would argue, irrelevant. For swim distances up to and including 200 metres, the accumulation of high levels of lactate does not matter: indeed, it is probably a good thing as it reflects a good anaerobic capacity. For longer events, such as 800 metres and 1500 metres, where the aerobic system is much more important, lactate-threshold training would be relevant, as swimmers need to maintain an intensity level for much longer, relying on the aerobic energy system.

The race pace model of training

The implication of all the research mentioned above is that spending more training time at high-intensity levels, at and above race pace, will offer greater benefits than swimming lots of kilometres per day at much slower than race speeds.
In the world of running the focus of training is now on 'pace' rather than lactate levels or heart rates. By using pace to monitor the intensity of training, the athlete is switching into a performance mentality, ensuring the training is specific to the competitive event.
Middle distance running coach Frank Horwill created a five-pace system of training, which involves performing regular, quality training sessions at two paces higher than race pace, race pace itself and two paces slower than race pace. If you are a 1500 metres runner, you will complete interval workouts at 400 metres, 800 metres, 1500 metres, 5000 metres and 10000 metres race paces. This model of training breeds a philosophy that values high intensity ahead of high volume.
The coaches referred to above also recognise that different events call for different kinds of training. The 5 kilometre running event - which takes about 12 to 15 minutes - requires a high proportion of aerobic training and 5 kilometre pace specific workouts, while the 800 metres event, lasting about two minutes, requires a high proportion of anaerobic training and 800 metres pace workouts. I would argue that this kind of training model would serve competitive swimmers much better than the traditional high volume approach.
There is evidence that the difference between swimmers who reach the Olympics and those who do not is due more to the distance achieved per stroke than to stroke frequency. The way to increase your distance per stroke is to increase the force generated by the active muscles and achieve an optimum position in the water. This is best achieved by high-intensity training, with the aim of developing power in the water at race pace.
How can swimmers change their training to enhance power at pace speeds? Again there may be lessons to learn from running. The 100 metres swim takes about 50 seconds, and so is similar to the 400 metres track event; the 200 metres swim takes about 110 seconds and so is analogous to the 800 metres running race. It may therefore be possible for swimmers to improve their performances by modelling the training of middle distance and long sprint track athletes.
For example, an international 800 metres runner will carry out a preparation period of aerobic capacity training with continuous running at 10 kilometre pace and slower, plus interval training at 5 kilometre pace. The 200 metres swimmer's equivalent could be the usual high-volume training programme.
This base training phase will be followed by more specific training, with more 5 kilometre and 10 kilometre pace runs and some more interval workouts for the anaerobic system, at 800 metres and 1500 metres pace, probably about three times a week. The 200 metres swimmer's equivalent could be to maintain a high volume but include more above lactate threshold pace workouts and race pace or close-to-race pace interval workouts three times a week: for example, 10 x 100 metres at 400 metres race pace, with 60 seconds rest.
This phase is followed by a very intense pre-competition phase of training, the goal of which is to maximise the athlete's anaerobic capacity. Aerobic training is cut to a minimum maintenance level, and high intensity anaerobic sessions at 400 metres, 800 metres, and 1500 metres pace performed about 5 to 6 times a week. For the swimmer, this could involve a morning swim at an easy lactate threshold pace or below, with very high quality race pace and faster than race pace interval workouts in the evening. For example, 8 x 50 metres at 200 metres race pace, with 60 seconds rest.
The competition phase for runners will simply maintain aerobic and anaerobic fitness with maintenance training and plenty of recovery between races. For the swimmer this could involve some 'aerobic' slow-speed workouts and some race-pace and sprint workouts, probably limiting training to 5 to 6 times per week.
The best middle distance runners probably perform a maximal sprint workout once a week throughout the year to keep speed up to scratch. Swimmers could also incorporate this into their programs with, for example, 10 x turn into 20 metres max sprint with three minutes rest, once a week.
I have argued, based on research, analysis of the energy demands of swimming races and the training methods of comparable athletes that it is best for swimmers to focus on high intensity rather than high-volume training. More specifically, swimmers would benefit from plenty of race pace training to develop power and efficiency in the water at the speeds they use to compete.

Article Reference

The information presented on this page is adapted from an article which was first published in Peak Performance issue 167.